Cluster expansion

Once the Bootstrap node has been installed (see Deployment of the Bootstrap node), the cluster can be expanded. Unlike the kubeadm join approach which relies on bootstrap tokens and manual operations on each node, MetalK8s uses Salt SSH to setup new Nodes through declarative configuration, from a single entrypoint. This operation can be done through the command-line.

Defining an architecture

See the schema defined in the introduction.

The Bootstrap being already deployed, the deployment of other Nodes will need to happen four times, twice for control-plane Nodes (bringing up the control-plane to a total of three members), and twice for workload-plane Nodes.


  • explain architecture: 3 control-plane + etcd, 2 workers (one being dedicated for infra)

  • remind roles and taints from intro

Adding a node from the command-line

Creating a manifest

Adding a node requires the creation of a manifest file, following the template below:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Node
  name: <node_name>
  annotations: /etc/metalk8s/pki/salt-bootstrap <node control-plane IP> 'false'
  labels: '2.0.0-dev'
    <role labels>
  taints: <taints>

The combination of <role labels> and <taints> will determine what is installed and deployed on the Node.

A node exclusively in the control-plane with etcd storage will have:

  labels: '' ''
    [… (other labels except roles)]
  - effect: NoSchedule
  - effect: NoSchedule

A worker node dedicated to infra services (see Introduction) will use:

  labels: ''
    [… (other labels except roles)]
  - effect: NoSchedule

A simple worker still accepting infra services would use the same role label without the taint.

Creating the Node object

Use kubectl to send the manifest file created before to Kubernetes API.

root@bootstrap $ kubectl --kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf apply -f <path-to-node-manifest>
node/<node-name> created

Check that it is available in the API and has the expected roles.

root@bootstrap $ kubectl --kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf get nodes
NAME                   STATUS    ROLES                         AGE       VERSION
bootstrap              Ready     bootstrap,etcd,infra,master   12d       v1.11.7
<node-name>            Unknown   <expected node roles>         29s

Deploying the node

Open a terminal in the Salt Master container using this procedure.

Check that SSH access from the Salt Master to the new node is properly configured (see SSH provisioning).

root@salt-master-bootstrap $ salt-ssh --roster kubernetes <node-name>

Start the node deployment.

root@salt-master-bootstrap $ salt-run state.orchestrate metalk8s.orchestrate.deploy_node \
                             saltenv=metalk8s-2.0.0-dev \
                             pillar='{"orchestrate": {"node_name": "<node-name>"}}'

... lots of output ...
Summary for bootstrap_master
Succeeded: 7 (changed=7)
Failed:    0
Total states run:     7
Total run time: 121.468 s



  • explain orchestrate output and how to find errors

  • point to log files

Checking the cluster health

During the expansion, it is recommended to check the cluster state between each node addition.

When expanding the control-plane, one can check the etcd cluster health:

root@bootstrap $ kubectl -n kube-system exec -ti etcd-bootstrap sh --kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf
root@etcd-bootstrap $ etcdctl --endpoints=https://[]:2379 \
                      --ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/ca.crt \
                      --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/healthcheck-client.crt \
                      --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/healthcheck-client.key \

  member 46af28ca4af6c465 is healthy: got healthy result from
  member 81de403db853107e is healthy: got healthy result from
  member 8878627efe0f46be is healthy: got healthy result from
  cluster is healthy


  • add sanity checks for Pods lists (also in the relevant sections in services)